Although the title of this paper might remind you of a James Bond film, this paper is not about the media or large conglomerates but about the industrial revolution, and in particular the trade and use of cotton textiles. The Cotton industry formed a major component of the British Industrial Revolution but because of that the story is often formed around the rapid transformation of cotton and textiles in the nineteenth century, and generally focused around the British story. This is not the approach that Giorgio Riello outlines in today’s paper. Riello believes that the story of the cotton industry is made more interesting and accurate by looking at a wider picture over a longer period of time and across the world. Cotton has a long history well before it arrived in Europe and so Riello looks at its use from 1000 AD up until the sixteenth-century as well as mechanisation in later centuries. Through this prism it is possible to see that the changes evoked in Britain were part of a wider story that crossed from India, to China and the Americas, even a little into Africa. Riello’s primary questions are why this major industry moved from predominantly India and China to Europe and why and how this because mechanised. The arguments form the backbone for a forthcoming book on Cotton and the Early Modern World.